- O eBookach w Internecie
- La policía y los misterios de los malditos leopardos mágicos | Cuesta Morúa
- Audiobooki w sieci (wersja testowa):
- Mobilność: media, praktyki miejskie i kultura studencka by Instytut Kulturoznawstwa UAM - Issuu
- Sitio oficial de La Bienal de Miami.
Plany zaostrzenia tzw. Have a chat with a foreigner, share positive energy during laughter yoga, taste snacks from different countries! Step out of your comfort zone, get inspired and meet people from all around the world! Blok I Praktyka i teoria anarchosyndykalizmu Temat 2. To konsekwencja kryzysu neoliberalnego modelu ekonomicznego. Blok I Praktyka i teoria anarchosyndykalizmu Temat 1. Teoria anarchosyndykalizmu i syndykalizmu rewolucyjnego. Czekajcie na niespodzianki. Debata publiczna. Tym razem maszerujemy ZA.
Co w planach? Nie dla torturowania kobiet! Niedziela, godz. Zaczynamy odliczanie do najbardziej oczekiwanej imprezy roku: W r. W tym roku zaczynamy!https://colbahebtere.cf
O eBookach w Internecie
Zapisy na warsztaty: Inny w obiektywie. Sama sobie winna. Wincentego 25A Godzina: Przemoc seksualna wobec kobiet. Agnieszka Graff. Prezentowane m. Startujemy w bardzo wiosennej atmosferze o godzinie Twierdza Europa. Kazimierza Wielkiego 19a godz. Szajnochy 5 godz. Proponowana taryfa wymiany to ok. Benefitowa sobota przedmanifowa: Zachodnia 1 godz. Zachodnia 1. Szajnochy 5. Wincentego 25A godz. Prowadzenie dr hab Dominika Ferens.
W programie: Zdecydowanie zapraszamy wszystkich zainteresowanych. Przemoc w relacjach nieheteroseklsualnych. Dlaczego przemoc w relacjach nieheteroseksualnych jest tematem tabu? Bartosz Sadulski. Dyskusja o polskich ateistach. Natomiast w czwartek 26 listopada, o godz. W dniach Stowarzyszenie Nomada, ul. Razem z CentrumCSR. GUS G. Gus G. Numer konta: Jesienny piknik Food not Boms. Antoniego 23 godz. Andrzejem Pisowiczem. A na sam koniec zapraszamy na muzyczno-wizualne afterparty.
Przewodnik Krytyki Politycznej". Lassalle'a i Fundacji im. Lassalle'a z okazji Prosimy o potwierdzenie uczestnictwa do 30 sierpnia na adres e-mail: Wokalne efekty specjalne, screaming. Spotkanie komisji Inicjatywy Pracowniczej. Hubska 44 godz: Link do rejestracji http: Wydarzenie na FB: Nie olewamy miasta. Proponujemy dwa teksty: Halawa, Statystyka jako technika siebie w: Studio eksperyment. Oto program Brave Festival Debata 'My, prekariat: Legnicka 65 godz. Wagen pizza party: W cenie warsztatu 1 torba gratis.
Zapraszamy do wyboru sobotniego menu! Streaming na stronie http: Sport to zdrowie oraz w zdrowym ciele zdrowy duch. Program konferencji: Zapraszamy serdecznie! Agnieszka Biernat, terapeuta — dietetyk, specjalista ds. Wolna przyroda i metafizyka bez transcendencji. Na razie zbieramy zapisy na:: Balafon Brothers - koncert i slajdowisko. Globalni reporterzy - gra wielkoformatowa. Ugandzie, Tanzani, Etiopii i Kenii. Wiek graczy: W programie Vegan Machine: Machina Organika ul. Ruska 19 Klubokawiarnia Mleczarnia ul. Dla kogo? Inauguracja AfryKamery: Zapraszamy do obejrzenia ich prac!
Dubois a. Pierwszego dnia Drugiego dnia Warsztaty poprowadzi urbanista Piotr Lorens. Proponowane tematy: Wykluczenie z rynku pracy 2. Wykluczone kobiety 3. Wykluczenie cyfrowe 4. Wykluczenie a grupy dyspozycyjne Wykluczenie a kultura. Piotra Skargi 18a godz. Czego on sam od siebie wymaga? Zapraszamy na spotkanie! Dywany nieloty - sobotnie DIY w Ekocentrum. Zapisy - hogatalos gmail. Strzegomski 2a godz. Zapraszamy na spotkanie w Opolu, 14 marca, godz.
Nasza strona: Lovecraft w Tajnych Kompletach cykl: Kreacje Krytyczne. Za kulisami polskiego parlamentu" i spotkanie z jej autorem - Piotrem Gadzinowskim. Fundacja Feminoteka Kiedy: CRK, ul. Potr Juskowiak, Gentryfikacja jako gentryfikacja. Ulice opanowane przez banki? Niebezpieczne parki? Warsztaty antydyskryminacyjne 'Stereotypy — uprzedzenia — dyskryminacja'. Czy jestem dyskryminowany? W maju druga edycja nowego wege festu. Koncepcja panelu: Tym razem stawiamy min pytania o to: Public Culture, , Tom 21, Nr 1, str.
Wykluczenie a integracja. Zaczynamy o godzinie Angelusa Silesiusa. Grzegorz W. Europejska Stolica Kultury? Czy miejska polityka kulturalna zaspokaja nasze potrzeby? Wszystko o zmianach klimatu [Fundacja EkoRozwoju]. Jedynie kilka procent. Temat spotkania: Hubska 44 godz. Brew, Birbant i wielu innych. Od dobrego gospodarza do miejskiego aktywisty.
La policía y los misterios de los malditos leopardos mágicos | Cuesta Morúa
Dyskusja warsztatowa: Start o Turcja, bogactwo kultury i tradycji. Kasprowicza 24 7 czerwca I to — niczym powietrze — emanuje z jego fotografii. Nie do zliczenia. Negatywy, piksele, odbitki. Liczba miejsc jest ograniczona. Zapraszamy do zwiedzania pracowni, galerii i restauracji oraz kawiarni. Przeczytaj nasz poradnik. Zapraszamy na 5. W drugi weekend majowy czekamy na Was! Kobieta w Afryce. Iwony Anny NDiaye, prof. Macieja 21 26 kwietnia o godzinie CRK Cafe Utopia, ul. Dobre jedzenie! Dobra muzyka! Dobra zabawa! Impreza muzyczna: Helene Klodawsky, USA , 76 min.
Katarzyny Matz i Szymona Mizery. Niedziela, PIEkarnik oraz Najadacze. Tomasz Grzyb kurator programu debat: Bartek Lis. Gaspard Conde Gwinea. Koniec w tym roku. Kobiety i praca w czasach wyzysku. Projekcja filmu 'Specjalne Strefy Wyzysku' i dyskusja. Projekcja filmu "Specjalne Strefy Wyzysku" i dyskusja. Seksualne tabu. W dodatku jest legalna. Cena architektury - dyskusja i promocja 'Recyklingu Idei'. Koszarowa 3 godz. Niedziela, 9. Komputerownia CRK: Programujemy na linuksach.
Krupnicza 15 godz. Solny 11 godz. Hubska Cena: Ruch alterglobalistyczny w Polsce. Zapraszamy na spontaniczne czytanie wierszy w nowej przestrzeni na CRK! Wszystkich nas nie spalicie. Street Dance Academy ul. Na boiskach przy ul. Skladowej 5 III lo od g. Parada Rowerowa. Olga jest czeladnikiem bioenergoterapii. Otwieramy Na start: Queer Festiwal Q Alternatywie — manifest! Dlaczego to robimy? Antoniego 8 godz. Antoniego Rozpoczynamy o Hoffman, E. Uniwersytecka godz. Eberta oraz OMS im. Lassalle'a brzmi: Nadodrze Kontratakuje vol3!
Piotra Skargi 18A godz. Do picia napoje wyskokowe jak i pyszne bezalkoholowe lemoniady. Zapraszamy na niedzielne Pokaz filmu Koniec Czasu. Wjazd za darmo. Przeciw pracy. Bartek Lis — kurator programu debat. Poznajemy techniki gry na takich instrumentach jak: Purkyniego godz. Manifa ! Zapraszamy do 2 Fali! Od godz. O godz. Uniwersytet Piracki zaprasza na warsztaty.
- Kuratorium Oświaty w Krakowie!
- Untitled Prezi by aneta ola on Prezi;
- backup htc evo to mac.
- binary file diff tool mac.
Aha, aha. Kiermasz jest otwarty. Rejestracja do dnia 4 grudnia na adres mailowy: Rosyjski underground w Tajnych Kompletach. Z autorem porozmawia Hubert Kostkiewicz. Anarchitektura — architektura bez architekta. W obronie piractwa! Sceny z okupowanej Ameryki [Falanster]. Tu i teraz. Startujemy o Tematy przewodnie dyskusji to: Plan konferencji Termin, miejsce: Piotr Matejczyk. Spotkanie z okazji wydania 13 numeru 'Recyklingu Idei' [Falanster]. Spotkanie 'Odroczmy ten wyrok, czyli zmierzch kultury w Polsce'. Impreza ma charakter konkursu. Dyskusja Panelowa: Dekonspiracja 1. Mamy to czego potrzebujecie: Co jeszcze dla Was mamy?
Prywatne jest polityczne. Spotkanie dyskusyjne na temat sztuki queerowej. Miejsce realizacji projektu: Infopunkt Nadodrze, ul. Rzecz o domach naturalnych, tj. O Pawle: Tony'ego Halika. Nankiera 17 Moderator dyskusji: Asia Bordowa www. Lipowa 15 wjazd: Tym razem zapraszamy do Hostelu Flower Power al.
Legnicka 65 przy skateparku.
Audiobooki w sieci (wersja testowa):
Kolejowa 12 godz. For example, they noticeably influence the way of getting in touch with friends. The basic motivation to enter into communicative interactions with particular persons is not anymore a subjective need to maintain mutual relations but their accessibility and readiness to undertake given actions in a given moment. Watkins, L. Hjorth, I. Koskinen, Wising Up: Ni, Smart Phone The surroundings which the user of mobile devices navigates is equipped with a big number of devices connected with one another, they collect data, cooperate and integrate with the device which belongs to a given user.
He or. Also environmental context becomes modified accordingly, and even physical and mental predispositions of a user; — extensibility and scalability: It was first noticed and described in such fields as economy and marketing and labeled mobile is different. It is connected with the phenomenon of the so-called smart boredom, which means using mobile devices as tools of asynchronous communication led randomly in free time,45 particularly noticeable in situations of short periods of waiting in public space, frequent in everyday urban life. Ghose, A. Harrison, Digital Trends Forecast , https: Goldfarb, S.
Teoria, diagnoza, profilaktyka i terapia, Wyd. UKW, Bydgoszcz , ss. Hjorth, Mobile game Cultures. Hjorth, Playful Urban Spaces. See for example: Teoria, diagnoza, profilaktyka i terapia, ed. Hjorth, Mobile game Culturep. Pariser, The Filter Bubble. The latter include games which engage innovative technical solutions, such as: GPS and hybrid reality games HRGs , in which urban environment becomes the playing field by making it possible for players to interact in physical world, and which enjoy a great interest of media researchers.
This led to diminishing the role of written word in computer mediated communication and thereby to the increased share of the visual component. An example of a purely visual communications form developed by means of mobile devices is the global phenomenon known as the selfie. They make decisions faster and also less and less willingly use website browsers as they prefer applications which provide small portions of condensed and profiled information in a short period of time the so called filter bubble Relationship between the significance of a post and a single click increases in the case of mobile devices in comparison to stationary ones, which stems directly from the above mentioned smaller convenience when it comes to navigating them.
Moreover, the importance of the distance between the subject and the object of search Folksonomiczne genologie selfie, w: Farman, Mobile Interface Theory: Rheingold, Smart Mobs. Rheingold, Smart Mob. Media and Journalism in the Digital Era, eds. Konarska, A. Szynol, Wyd. Gardner, K. Davis, The App Generation: They expect from digital devices a higher than before level of interactivity and also facilitations of navigation, particularly in local surroundings, which is connected with the above mentioned need for selecting and profiling information.
This stems from the fact that due to their specifics they facilitate creating dynamic ad hoc networks which are more difficult to control and even harder to pacify. They allow young people to build their own communication channels and work out their own ways of using media, thus deciding in a historically unprecedented way about the shape of their milieu. Messenger na Facebooku. The egalitarisation of access to information, w: Szynol red. Taylor, J. Hamill, A. Lasen, D. Diaper red. Goggin, Cell Phone Culture. It is connected with the aforementioned fact that young people were the first to adapt mobile innovations even before smartphones became popular on a mass scale.
Thanks to them the youth gained independence from their families and simultaneously learned how to regulate the activity of the peer network while establishing it. Mass scale of this activity led to moral panic among parents, educators and publicists who started to exaggerate the examples of such mobile practices as sexting sending by users, also minor ones, messages including erotic selfies or the so called happy slapping recording violent attacks on accidental people on a mobile phone and then sharing these recordings online as viral pranks.
However, in recent years this approach seems to be losing its popularity. It is connected with the fact that both elderly and younger people are becoming mobile media users on a large scale. Past, Present and Future, eds. Diaper, Springer, New York , pp. Goggin, Youth Culture and Mobiles Society and Space, Volume 22, Issue 1, , pp. Goggin, Youth Culture and Mobile Keep, The Portable Shrine. This erases the so-far distinctive age boundaries thus remodelling the perception of the so called digital divide.
The more important role it plays the stronger it converges with other devices transforming itself into a rich arsenal of multimedia devices with a possibility of networking. Nowadays mobile photography enjoys enormous popularity all over the globe; contemporary cities are constantly scanned by millions of eyes searching for a proper shot in order to convert it into a digital flashback as an artefact generated on a mobile device, which will allow them to relive and reconfigure private experiences, even so saturated with emotions and so personal as mourning.
Nowadays telephones equipped with cameras constitute important social spots and tools of experiencing it. Australian Journal of Communication, Vol. Keep, The Portable Shrine Hjorth, Imaging Communities: Caron, L. Caronia, Moving Cultures: Larsen, J. Urry, K. For example in everyday life coordinated by mobile media lack of punctuality becomes a much lesser issue than in the world deprived of this technical convenience, hence is it not adhered to as strictly as before.
Rigorous rules and requirements in this respect are replaced by flexible punctuality. One example of research conducted in this context are the ways of managing home by working mothers,74 another are the ways of maintaining family bonds by young people who are studying away from home,75 which is directly connected with the mentioned above issue of domesticating mobile media.
It seems that using them modifies the perception of time and space categories also in a broader social context, which is illustrated by popularity of the above mentioned strategy of interaction avoidance, to say the least. Following this strategy one can easily avoid unwanted contacts in a random space shared with others by e.
Users of mobile devices gain new wide opportunities in terms of controlling their time and space availability for others. Consequently they start understanding differently the borderline between private and professional life and they increasingly often work from home, but also pursue private matters at work.
This situation gives them freedom and agency, and as such it can become an element of social capital. Using mobile media can enhance it both in terms of relations L. Yi-Fan Chen, J. Katz, Extending Family to School Life: This dynamism provokes to interpret subjectivity and agency in different innovative ways, thus influencing — in a multidimensional way — the theory and methodology of scientific research. It also bears the significant stamp on social studies and humanities inducing them to take a general direction towards broadly understood issues connected with intimacy.
Campbell, K. Po obu stronach kamery. On Both Sides of the Camera. Zeidler-Janiszewska, O tzw. The full version of the title implies it quite clearly: Czasopismo Internetowe No. T Mitchell, Picture Theory. A significant body of knowledge about the world — something that all people with healthy eyes seem to forget — is obtained through the light bouncing off various surfaces of both objects and subjects. The remaining quantum of empirical experience is provided by the less dominant senses of hearing, touch, smell or taste.
In less literary times, the spoken word was the main vehicle of knowledge, sometimes supported and perpetuated by an allegorical image. However, the situation changed with the entry into the Gutenberg galaxy and the increasingly widespread skill of reading written texts. After all, the first printed publications were Latin textbooks, followed by the Bible published in Mainz from to by Johannes Gutenberg.
The textual universe, however, did not fully dominate the human cognitive sphere; more importantly, print significantly supported the visual communication. To be exact — this text was not about iconology in the sense given to it later by Erwin Panofsky; rather than that, it was an elaborate catalogue of allegories, a unique visual dictionary or even a textbook for artists.
The history of communication came full circle — from the image through abstract ideas and concepts, to the reemergent need for illustrative images of these concepts. The re-discovery of the image was intended to make others rethink its status and to seek new methods of analysis and criticism in the visual realm. In his later book Picture Theory,5 Mitchell concentrated on 1. T Mitchell, M. Bal, N. Boehm, O obrazach i widzeniu. Olechnicki, Antropologia obrazu.
Oficyna Naukowa, Warszawa ; K. Studia z socjologii i antropologii obrazu. Uniwersytetu im. Klekot, Wyd. Bogunia-Borowska, P. Sztompka red. Sztompka, Socjologia wizualna jako metoda badawcza, Wyd. Krajewski, R. Kaczmarek red. Socjologia wizualna w praktyce badawczej, Wyd. Szkice z socjologii wizualnej, Wyd. Mitchell, Mieke Bal, Nicolas Mirzoeff , the Polish reader had an opportunity to get acquainted with the debate concerning the issues of visual culture. Studia z socjologii i antropologii obrazu, Wyd. BoguniaBorowska and P.
Socjologia wizualna w praktyce badawczej, ed. Kaczmarek, Wyd. Szkice z socjologii wizualnej. Collected publication, ed. In earlier logocentric theories, images were at most illustrations for the textual expression of thoughts. An image construed in this way would again become an important mediator between the subject and the world. Since the image has effectively mediated between the various realities for a long time, many researchers in the humanities and social sciences have appreciated this potential, contributing to the creation of such subdisciplines as visual anthropology9 or visual sociology.
According to the Belgian researcher, skilfully rendered visual representations help e. Pauwels, Zwrot wizualny w badaniach i komunikacji wiedzy. Olechnicki red. Therefore, I have decided to concentrate in this text mainly on the visual studies practices that make observations about culture through filming. This will be a twofold perspective: The focus and the way to address the problem as well as the magnitude and seriousness, or a total absence thereof, was up to the participants. They, too, had been familiar with film production and had acquired knowledge about the basic forms and conventions of communication via moving images.
The particular etudes were completed by students with basic training in the language of film, audio-visual equipment operation and non-linear editing techniques. The workshop followed the principle of learning by doing and took place in a rather laid-back atmosphere of collective creation on the set. The footage shot on the campus of the Adam Mickiewicz University Faculty of Social Sciences was a fusion of improvised scenes and on-camera commentary, so they were mainly created in the Monty Python-like poetics of absurdity.
During the editing exercises, individual stories were created from the shared starting material. Naukowe PWN, Warszawa But this experience is so much different from being oneself a witness to or orchestrator of the events and an author of a film footage about them. It is accompanied by a full awareness of biased tendencies, simplifications, hushing things up or, on the contrary, exaggerating or excessively dramatizing events. While in the context of the information media, we have beco-. The researcher should be equally responsible for the word and for the image.
Therefore, in the practice of visual research, it is precisely this awareness of the difference between the mimetic and expressive potential of tools such as a camera and a microphone that is of prime importance. However, it should be noted that this knowledge does not necessarily have to discriminate against one of these potentials. Luc Pauwels considers their alleged opposition as misleading and unconstructive. It is enough to be aware of the differences between them as indicated by the history of aesthetics. However, while the recipient of the message has every right to get confused sometimes, the incompetence of the sender is unpardonable.
It is not always possible to control everything that is visible in the frame. In the meantime, e. It is therefore extremely important to shape sensitivity and visual erudition14 among culture researchers, of course both in theory and in practice. Ibidem, p. Naukowe PWN Warszawa Having been duly prepared to record motion picture and sound and to edit the footage, the students worked on their own etudes.
The 8 films which were made represented very different poetics: In spite of some shortcomings in terms of the quality of the recording and thus the sound of the voice , the film offers an interesting shift. The global machine of popular culture and the music industry has been domesticated, democratized or captured for personal use. In this sense, following John Fiske, we can speak here of selected aspects of cultural resistance in pop culture. They recorded parts of the performances and short interviews by means of which they managed to effectively account for the atmosphere of such places.
In the film, we see both those who can sing and those who were encouraged to do so by a few pints of beer, which overshadowed their talent. In spite of this contrasting set of abilities, the Authors decided not to enforce any aesthetic and artistic valorisation. They summed up the matter addressing the viewer directly: In both the videos, the music is not the main topic or a pretext, but it organizes well the rhythm of images. Reducing them to their feet only, it seems to look at everything from the perspective of the dog. In the next shots, though, instead of the expected walk we see the owner packing the dog into the rear seat of the car, where the dog behaves normally, examines the views outside the windows and patiently waits for what will happen next.
- share my mac printer with windows.
- rilangid/ofofikapehyd.ml at master · jimmycallin/rilangid · GitHub.
- install cube world on mac.
- hotspot shield elite trial mac?
- Polonijna Ksiazka - Polish Pages - /19 by Polish Pages, Inc. - Issuu.
- Zasoby internetowe książki elektronicznej:;
- el capitan mac download time.
- microsoft office 2011 for mac product key list.
At this stage, the viewer does not know whether it will be a holiday trip or a visit to a vet. Meanwhile, the protagonist arrives at a football pitch and when the music reaches the climax and gains momentum, we witness an unexpected turn. An anthropomorphic turn occurs; the dog gets a ball to play with and starts a whole series of marvellous tricks, chases and turns.
Moreover, the animal seems completely self-sufficient; it does not demand attention, animation, retrieval or other elements of typical human-dog behaviour. The dog itself seems to be the author of choreography, because in fact it is difficult to imagine that such a dribbling and juggling feat can be trained. The camera movements, though of necessity dynamic, do not wear us down; the editing is very careful and the slow-motion effect fully justified. Viceroy, in turn, is an old brand of cheap cigarettes, advertised in the background of the movie by Canadian singer Mac DeMarco.
The pictures showing paradise beaches and palm trees, shown with the camera moving away from them, quickly turn out to be illusory; they are either kitschy signage of solariums or a postcard with a tropical landscape tucked above a bathtub. The similarly filmed rose in the shop window turns out to be made of plastic when seen up clo-.
When real flowers appear, they are already wilted, relegated to a balcony, a sort of extraterritorial place, a space between the private world of [ 93 ]. A lot more space is dedicated to two peculiar human avatars: Two further etudes refer to the experiences of international student mobility programs.
In the final version, there were several shots of the movie protagonist during the meal, supplemented by impressionist pictures of ordinary street scenes observed from the perspective of a walker. In the frame there are places which tourists do not see that often: While the movie protagonist praises the dish she ischewing at a given moment, her voice heard off camera, on the screen we watch a crow pick cigarette butts from the characteristic outdoor ashtray on the campus of the Faculty of.
Social Sciences of Adam Mickiewicz University. At some point in the movie, Monika interjects casually: The protagonist therefore puts an equation mark between choosing a country to live in and choosing a dish from the menu: Na ekranie widzimy typowe miejskie scenki rodzajowe uchwycone na skwerach Triestu: It is worth adding, however, that studying there in this case turned out to be equally marginal, definitely not something to write home about.
Instead, everything connected with killing free time is shown very minutely. Carefully studied and selected shots were supplemented in the soundtrack with soothing background music in the form of the Maruzzella song performed by Renato Carosone. On the screen we watch typical urban scenes seen in the squares of Trieste: These shots are intertwined with portraits of the protagonist engulfed in a whole array of daily rituals, such as brewing the morning coffee, pasta making, train travels, and walks along the sea coastline.
In order to more effectively empower the character of Agnese, the Author decided on something unusual: Agnese decided to prepare her speeches thoroughly, so she wrote them down and read out for the recording. She talked about the little pleasures of everyday life, her collecting impressions and emotions and the associated need for feeling fulfilment in life. According to Sonia, in terms of sound and melody of the sentences, it was little spontaneous and somewhat artificial, just like presenting a paper. Therefore, she initially planned to leave out this narration.
Cezary Bezmienow proposed the form of an advertising spot, extended to more than three minutes. Length is obviously not the only exception to the generic principles, because the message is far from persuasive. Nor can it be called a life-style one. Both the steps of the passers-by and the repetitive elements of the buildings windows, stairs, columns seem to emphasize the rhythm of the minimalist ambient music background.
The only colour element is the neon-lime logo of the clothing company occasionally appearing in the video. The film ends unexpectedly on a positive note: However, unlike in Kafka, instead of getting worse, things move in the opposite direction: This incarnation option soon produces identity crises, too; the image becomes darker and the digital effects applied to it make it increasingly abstract.
In the finale, the camera applies a low perspective of the cat nervously jumping in the backyard lawn to the sound of heavy guitar riffs. But it certainly appears open to both experimentation and liquid identity in liquid postmodernity. Of course, the knowledge derived from the few aforementioned short etudes does not in any way claim the right to any universality or legitimacy. However, this modest attempt helps to approximate the potential and range of ways of describing student culture by means of moving images.
The Authors of these films, though they have mastered the skill of filmmaking to varying degrees, have definitely shown a lot of invention in finding adequate visual forms for their ideas. Although there were not given any guidelines, they explicitly and intentionally attempted to transcend the pure conventions of the genre of reportage or documentary. The films make it plain that the dilemma of a tactical choice between mimetics and expressiveness was not particularly embarrassing for the Authors.
It is also significant that in the course of searching for their subjects, the students did not try to enter unknown areas but looked instead at their immediate, familiar environment. In this way the films definitely gained authenticity and in the attitude of their protagonists there were no artificial poses or other manifestations of overacting. Looking at the achievements of the documentary classics, one can observe the extreme importance and yet significant difficulty of learning how to establish a rapport between the filmmaker and the protagonist of the film.
Therefore, it is worth remembering that the visual [ 99 ]. XX wieku. Do contemporary image recording technologies promote visual competence? The answer to this question seems obvious today, especially as the development of technology is unquestionably conducive to the growth of image quality, and the miniaturization of the camera has made it a fe-. On the other hand, this situation is conducive to the overproduction of images, pictorial excess, visual chaos, which in turn do not seem to have much to do with visual erudition or competence.
Can we say that with complete confidence, though? For example, did not the evolutionary development of techniques of image recording prepare us to some extent for this critical mass? The first wooden still and motion picture cameras along with a tripod and accessories weighed a lot and were very bulky. The low sensitivity of the photographic emulsion made the good picture dependent on intense light or relative stability of both the object photographed and the camera. The effects of this breakthrough were felt both in amateur photography and in professional reportage.
In this way, press photographs from the frontlines of the war were clear and dynamic. For the safety of reporters, further refinements in the field of optics were of great importance, especially the widespread use of long-range lenses, which allowed the photographer to keep a safe distance from the events witnessed, without losing the opportunity to capture important details. Far less revolutionary was the introduction of colour into photography and film.
Although the earliest colour pictures date to the late 19th century, due to economic reasons and other imperfections of the printing techniques, they were used in the press sector on a mass scale only in the s. In the US, this coincided with reportages from the so-called Six-Day War an armed Israeli-Arab conflict of , which enhanced the means of expression from the perspective of illustrated magazines: When the press magnate William Hearst got burned by such a lamp, he ordered all of his photojournalists to use magnesium light bulbs which entering the press, which, unfortunately, also exploded every now and then.
Only electronic flashes were completely safe, see https: Michelle L. The photographic company was fully owned, financed and controlled by its members-photographers. The motto of the agency are the words by H. Magnum is a community of thought, a shared human quality, a curiosity about what is going on in the world, a respect for what is going on and a desire to transcribe it visually. Quoted after: This, naturally, was strongly controversial and even some of the photojournalists were faithful to black and white pictures.
For instance, when Life magazine covered the conflict in colour, Time retained the aesthetic of black and white. Mass audiences began to receive images earlier reserved exclusively for direct participants in warfare. This increased the demand of press agencies for professionals who would combine solid photojournalist skills i. Magnum Photos Agency has remained until now a place where such talents17 are honed and polished.
The visual history of the Middle East events from the beginning of the state of Israel was created in parallel with the development of this agency and the techniques and styles of news photography. Both the authors of these photographs and press publishers were fully aware of their persuasive power and political potential. Woodward, when analysing these images in a spirit strongly reminiscent of Foucault , argues that it is obvious that photographs are culturally-dependent objects, aesthetic vehicles of worldviews entangled in complex relations of ideology, knowledge and power.
This dematerialisation has eliminated the need for both cumbersome exchange of film reels in cameras and for the chemical treatment of these materials not to mention the problem of smuggling them from endangered areas. Images from conflicts in the farthest corners of the globe could almost instantly reach the editorial offices of news magazines. It is worth pointing out that the automation of cameras in terms of selecting aperture parameters or exposure times began still in the days of analogue photography and has continued since.
Gradually, relevant programs made it possible to devote more and more attention to the composition of the frame and to focus on the content itself. On the other hand, cheapness and ease sometimes entail carelessness, lack of precision and mediocrity. Even the smartest technologies will not replace the intelligence of a photographer or filmmaker.
Experienced authors seem to be in this regard always a few steps ahead of amateurs and volunteers.
Mobilność: media, praktyki miejskie i kultura studencka by Instytut Kulturoznawstwa UAM - Issuu
Persistent pursuit of only aesthetic and artistic Digital image processing creates a lot of temptations, whether it is a shift of the Egyptian pyramids into a better composition the infamous case of The National Geographic or the smoothing down and slimming of photo models, we deal with fraud. The discussion gets bogged down in justifications of harmless distortions, the degree of acceptability of these corrections, low social harm, etc.
Imperceptibly, too good a photo has become suspicious and less credible. That is why, on the news agency side, we are seeing an increase in the interest in the content provided by amateurs who are direct participants of some events. Online tools provided by popular browsers now allow a far easier exploration of this sphere. When, for example, we are interested in the mechanism of the so-called viral, or a popular meme, modern technologies assist us. The fact that someone recognizes within a few seconds on a screen a masterpiece by Ingmar Bergman does not necessarily mean that he himself would be able to shoot something of the same calibre.
This is a trivial, but fundamental distinction between know-how and justknow. In this respect, the most advanced imaging and digital editing technologies will not be able to replace experience, skills, talent or intuition. Visual culture, however, does not stand still; the new situations created by social media call for novel, network-specific competences.
Actually, Biafra had in mind a slightly different alternative for the mainstream media, more counterculture one, activist or e. Bodenmann-Ritter red. Keen, Kult amatora. Jeder Mensch ein Kunstler. YouTube has then been forced by market and legal methods to permanently trace down and remove copyright infringing content. No matter what our assessment of social media as to the production of knowledge of the world, they have provided a counterbalance to and have partly become a source for officialnews agencies.
It is hard to unequivocally claim whether online services such as YouTube might satisfy Joseph Beuys, who in the s promoted the slogan that anyone can be an artist Jeder Mensch ist ein Kunstler. It is possible that he would even launch his own channel on this site. But beyond the rhetoric of speculation, it must be pointed out that YouTube-style portals and the participative Web 2. Naturally, the confines of this short text prevent meticulous and multi-faceted analyses of the issues outlined above, so I will limit myself to just a few observations on the changes that YouTube has made to visual culture.
Others, like copyright issues, YouTube has coped with by themselves. Meanwhile, YouTube has become a pretty big archive of the modern iconosphere of moving images. It is true that in terms of film quality, we can find a wide range of footage, from embarrassingly It is difficult to do so, however, since in its initial assumptions the medium was supposed to serve private and banal purposes of the users and to be a film extension of their family photo albums.
Thus, the idea was perfectly tailored to the human need for self-presentation and no wonder the volume of published content is growing exponentially. A completely separate issue is the aesthetic or artistic valorisation of the videos published by the YouTube community. What position should one actually take to make its criticism adequate or authorized?
It is possible to judge the quality of the frames, the degree of mastery of the technique of editing and adding sound, relate critically to the message, etc. But what should our benchmark be? Should we use as benchmark the masterpieces of the cinema or the prototype video from the zoo? All the more so, since the YT community has produced film genres and subgenres that are present nowhere else and has paraphrased for its own needs earlier conventions. It is impossible to make a complete typology here, but it is worth mentioning a few of them by way of example.
The review of product labelled as unpacking is a very popular convention born just among youtubers. Previously, it seemed unlikely that the viewer could have taken any interest in the process of taking a cell phone out of a box. A relatively uniform filming has developed here. It is mandatory to film from a subjective perspective, where the camera adopts the angle of the reviewer, showing his or her hands when using the object and with a spoken commentary on the object being reviewed.
Interestingly, in the narcissistic era of the selfie these youtubers actually avoid showing their faces. This is the role adopted on YouTube by a lot of musicians both pros and talented amateurs who are willing to publish tutorials for beginners, patiently explaining, for example, how to put finger after finger on a bass guitar neck to perform an attractive riff from a Red Hot Chili Peppers piece. In this case, the convention more frequently displays the face of the musician and applies different camera angles, yet the fingers and the instrument always remain the priority.
A similar trend is maintained throughout the DIY segment, from tiling bathrooms to following a cheesecake recipe. It would seem that such productions are as beneficial for the consumers as is watching patrons eat a sumptuous meal through a restaurant window for a hungry person. Nothing further from the truth; the number of entries and comments is indeed mind-boggling. This handful of selected examples can well illustrate the weakness or uselessness of the traditional categories of film or art criticism. This does not mean that this valorisation is not there; on the contrary, every youtuber exposes him- or herself to the evaluations and comments of other users.
In addition, there are replies by means of videos. This, in turn, entails the desire to raise the artistic and aesthetic level and the content quality of published footage. This is made possible thanks to numerous technological innovations and facilities discussed in the preceding paragraph. Today, almost anyone who has access to the internet, takes photographs and shoots films even with a phone to be published on their profiles and in this way becoming a digital native.
Therefore, they do not need to learn many things in visual communication to be effective, just like a child who learns a language without knowing its grammar rules. Of course, a growing percentage of them are trying to improve their skills and are fascinated by technical innovations, the constantly improving parameters of sports cameras, etc. As a side note, it is worth mentioning that the drop in prices of these cameras greatly expanded the creativity of the youtubers to their use outside of extreme sports. The widespread use of motion recording devices does not always entail an increase in visual competencies even among digital natives.
Sitio oficial de La Bienal de Miami.
For example, many smartphone users consistently film different scenes by holding their phones vertically. To warm up before the sparring, representatives of the competing clans insult each other in short YouTube videos shot specifically for this purpose. Of course, the battles themselves are also uploaded.
How to assess the usefulness of social media in the field of visual research? The videos posted there can provide viewers with entertainment, be anecdotal or treated as a guide of sorts, a platform allowing an exchange. What, however, is valuable for a culture scholar is that these materials can also refer to socio-cultural contexts of their performance, to the standards and rules respected or broken by their authors, to the motivation of their choices, identification with or distance from the subject, etc.
Filming will be seen here as a more complex socio-cultural practice, rather than just a chaotic production of flashing images. On the other hand, the whole range of reception practices is also worth analysing: Interesting observations can also be made in the visual layer, for example, when amateurs try to catch up with the expertise of the professionals, and professionals of crypto-advertising impersonate the style of amateurs to gain more credibility among internet users.
There is also a lot of study material at the intersection of the interests of visual culture researchers, economists and ethicists. The joyfully adopted and domesticated participation culture is underpinned by a need for storing a colossal amount of digital data. If it pays off for a corporation to finance them, it is obvious that the benefits of collecting data concerning users: Proper tagging and customisation software makes it easy for us to navigate the site, suggests content that may interest us, but only because our every move is recorded and we rely on permanent profiling.
What is interesting, for many modern users, privacy is a value worth bearing in this unequal exchange. In this way, a person who is holding an old-fashioned keyboard phone is beginning to be seen as having something to hide, perhaps a criminal, or even a terrorist. The fact that some content has had a lot of viewers does not always mean real popularity. After reaching a few thousand hits, the snowball effect begins: Another trap could be naive treatment of posts and publications in social media as serious sources of knowledge.
Unfortunately, even major news agencies have been deceived in this way, which has often forced them to issue rectifying statements, leading to a reduction in credibility. Well, a culture researcher can do little about this lack of verifiability, especially in the face of the disinterest of social media users with respect to the responsibility for the published words and images.
The anonymity that the network environment allows used to be blamed for this state of affairs. But over time, even the customised profiles of well-known people have been filled with hate, post-truths and absurd conspiracy theories. Recent US elections seem to confirm that internet users look not so much for truth as for spectacle that provides excitement and emotions.
However, in addition to visual erudition, the researcher should develop a whole range of other visual competencies. There is no place here for mediocrity, all the more so since the crisis of representation diagnosed by postmodernism is still fresh in our minds. Since images are so prone to manipulation, abuse and overinterpretation today, how can they serve as a credible, objective and scientifically valid tool? Worse still, with respect to visual studies, the scholar becomes in a way lazy in the field of narratives and interpretations, especially in situations where he thinks that the picture speaks for itself Excessive fascination with the pictorial turn should not result in activities such as those shown in the film Fahrenheit dir.
Paradoxically, in part, such thinking can be a metaphor for the prophet of the pictorial turn, i. It consistently uses a strongly animistic rhetoric consisting in attributing human qualities to images. This asignment of agency and autonomy to images can be cognitively effective but irritating in the long run. This, however, does not diminish the accuracy of many of the observations and metaphors of the author of What do images want? See W. The most devout proponents of visual methods in the social sciences and in the humanities, have produced so far more written words and sentences than images sic!
The audio-visual material as the subject of analyses by cultural scholars clearly requires explanation by means of text, which has indeed been happening since the onset of the discipline. On the other hand, films created as an integral part of the research process can coexist with a classic textual commentary e.
However, in order for this second variant to be valid and cognitively effective, the following seem necessary: At least basic competences in the field of cinematography and film language although it is possible to hire a professional crew to have them do the work, you have to know what to expect from them , 2. Strategic decisions as to whether the film medium will be the most appropriate for the research problem, 3. The footage must be made in a way so meet the relevant standards of explanation, be transparent and — let us not be afraid of the word — attractive for the recipient. Obviously, to meet the third demand it becomes necessary to employ text with the film.
Another film incarnation of the text is, of course, the words spoken by the protagonists, commentators, respondents, etc. The task of the researcher is only to organise images and words so that recipients do not lose their bearings. At the initial stage, the script is responsible for it and in the final stage editing comes into play. Time will tell what they will steal, what they will take over and what new elements of film grammar will become the sub-generic identity of visual research. From Mobile Privatization to Intimization of Mobility. Technology and Cultural Form.
Williams, Mobile privatization, w: Du Gay, S. Hall, L. Janes, A. Koed Madsen, H. Mackay, K. Negus red. After all, as Williams wrote himself: What it means is that at most active social levels people are increasingly living as private small-family units, or, disrupting even that, as private and deliberately self-enclosed individuals, while at the same time there is a quite unprecedented mobility of such restricted privacies.
Trying to explain this type of correlation, Williams invokes a more impressive illustration, i. All the shells are moving [ Domestic television consumption is then one of simultaneously sting at home and imaginatively, at least,. Williams, Mobile privatization, in Doing Cultural Studies.
The Story of the Sony Walkman, eds. Morley, Przestrzenie domu. Morley, Home Territories. To better understand the process and its adequate application for the sake of the key category of mediatised student culture, it would be worthwhile to follow briefly the logic of the development of the mobile media as a gradual strengthening of the tendency of the privatization of mobility.
The Walkman or a mobile device used for consuming musical content in motion, i. Debuting in , the Walkman made by Sony registered trademark of the concern became later a popular term used to define all portable, mobile devices for playing music nearly immediately gained such a tremendous popularity that it created a cultural phenomenon of its own kind, establishing a new approach of consumers to the reception of music.
In response to these optimistic interpretations, some researchers started to point out a crucial threat from strongly individualised personal media, presenting critical arguments which stated that in fact the Walkman promotes an ap[ ]. Hanson, Mass Communication. Hills, Mobility, Interactivity and Identity, w: Creeber, R. Martin red. Jenkins, Kultura konwergencji. According to the researcher, those mechanisms produced by Kodak company were the first to announce the contemporary reversal of the-then dominating trend i. This change caused that photography ceased to be solely restricted to photographic studios and became an activity pursued by individual users while taking a walk or on holidays.
See R. Understanding New Media, ed. Nie jest ani z nami, ani z nimi [ Morley, Communications and Mobility: In succession, then, according to David Morley: Mobile phone user in public space does not walk down the street, does not walk in the park, does not drive a car the way others do. He is not with us, nor with them [ Simultaneously phone users can discretely play like actors in the theatre using body language which is an anthology of acting techniques and provokes inquisitive insights into private lives of the performers.
At the same time, scholars interested in the cultural history of the popular Walkman emphasize a very similar range of social functioning of this technology pointing out that while there has been a steady move away from mainly public to predominantly private modes of viewing and listening of cultural texts, the Walkman marks an important inversion in this process, by taking private listening into the public domain.
As the cultural theorist Ian Chambers has suggested: Green, L. Haddon, Mobile Communications. The practices of contemporary users of the most popular mobile media at the moment, i. This storing of the rich repository of materials in phones mostly in the form of pictures taken by a given user , and subsequently sharing them through social media, becomes a crucial prac-. The increase in the significance of mobile communications technology — determined by a gradual evolution of mobile phones towards smartphones — is actually often interpreted by ever increasing importance of visual sphere made available by such devices.
In an attempt to conduct a unique classification of visual content of the mobile media Nicola Green and Leslie Haddon write: Jak pisali autorzy raportu: Filiciak, M. Danielewicz, M. Halawa, P. Mazurek, A. As the authors of the report wrote: Taking photos has never been so easy and cheap, and at the same time so common and frequent, as it is today. Almost everyone can take photos and everyone is exposed to a deluge of visual stimuli on a daily basis.
Photos which young people deal with, no matter how they have been created, gain their full meaning in digital circulation, i. Taking photos is involved in many everyday practices not connected with art. The account is maintained by a different person every week. The person records their daily life, surroundings, passions and everything that they want to immortalize by posting at least one picture illustrating it every day. We kindly invite you to post your hearts and comments!
The basic aim of this venture was to obtain visual research material as regards the core issue studied in this grant, namely student culture and its photographically mediated illustrations on Instagram. Student culture, understood here. Thus, student culture would be a variety of urban culture connected with the activity of specific institutions academic ones and places universities, per se, but also dormitories and student clubs.
When making an attempt to categorize photographic materials available on the profile autoinwigilacja in terms of their reference to classi-. Thus, a photography taken by smartphone constituted in such cases a kind of act confirming an individual meaning conferred upon the place, which connected it with the current atmosphere or activity.
Probably the other category that can be distinguished in the discussed projects, i. The Instagram project conducted by Poznan students analyzed in the context of student culture leads to proposing twofold conclusions as regards practices of Poznan students, i. Student culture constitutes this sphere of mobile media culture which seems to be one of the most developed and varied in terms of the number of social and technological practices conducted within it, and more importantly, purposes which are hidden behind using mobile technologies.
IBL, Warszawa Michalska, L. Foremska, A. The text will be published in English]. This part of the report, which is devoted to how to understand student culture today, in the context of technological and socio-cultural mobility, was developed on the basis of all student projects carried out under the grant Mobility: Media, urban practices and student culture. In both cases, this cooperation took the form of a research workshop with the application of the project method. Its aim was to have students develop1 research and animation projects focused on the question of student culture and its transformation, taking place in contemporary urban reality and in relation to the development of mobile media.
Six groups of students from 10 to 20 people in the group divided into several teams took part in the workshop. However, the use and publication of the results of the work of individual teams was voluntary. The studies were of qualitative character. They were conducted with the use of the cultural analysis methods. Still, the basic tool used by all groups was mobile photography. The in-class discussions in the working groups and the varied forms of presentation of the interim effects of the work were important elements of the project.
Mobile media and educational research workshop;4 the visual materials prepared by the. Molenda, A. Dimensions of mobility and redefinition of the student culture concept One of the research goals of the Mobility project was a redefinition of the concept of student culture in order to render it more adequate for defining, analysing and interpreting the cultural experience of present-day.
Of course, the key factors here were the changes resulting from the socalled media mobilization process. Initially these were mainly young, educated or educating inhabitants of big cities. Of course, with time this division grew more and more relative along with the availability of wireless networks, public places with access to wi-fi and in connection with the popularization of mobile devices phones, smartphones, tablets, etc.
However, we can still maintain that the experience of students as a social group is unique in the context of media mobilization. Media mobilne [mobile media], developed for the purposes of the Mobility project: Report available online at: Szacka, Wprowadzenie do socjologii, Oficyna Naukowa, Warszawa , ss.
Sztompka, Socjologia. In the project itself, however, we intended to capture several distinct, divergent meanings of the mobility in question. These meanings are variously operationalised in contemporary scientific reflection, and only when taken together do they help us determine the cultural, communication and. First of all, the obvious reference is e. On the other hand, it is vertical, because the students, despite the awareness of the transformations of the Polish educational reality, continued to interpret tertiary education as a form of social promotion. The second, important reference context was spatial mobility, in several aspects at the same time.
Secondly, the mobility of students as users of urban space turned out to be extremely important. Szacka, Wprowadzenie do socjologii, Oficyna Naukowa, Warszawa , pp. Sztompka, Sociologia. Giddens, Socjologia, trans. Urry, Mobilities, Polity Press, Cambridge Franek, Wyd. Lash, C. Majmurek, R. Mitoraj, Wyd. Of course, the most important here were the works of John Urry and. This12 plural form helps us pursue mobility on a global scale, which includes physical movements, symbolic flows and technological transfer of information.
The two-way process of medializing the experience of materiality and the materialization of media products have been described e. We will come back to this issue of unique student and mobile experience of the urban context. At this point, it is vital to stress that all the aspects of mobility considered by us during the project have necessitated a redefinition of student culture, the key category for this part of the report.
In this perspective, the results of activities of all working groups and all those involved in the Mobility project prove that the concept of student culture requires redefinition in relation to the tradition of analysing this phenomenon in the Polish humanities and social sciences. Kultura, ludzie, miejsca, trans. Medializacja rzeczy, trans. As the editor of the work wrote in the introduction: And it is the passage of time, in particular the social and political transformations taking place, changes in the civilization and culture after , which made obsolete student culture in the form in which it developed and functioned since the mids until the end of communism in Poland.
It was primarily a specific cultural circulation, more or less connected with both official and independent culture actually functioning quite effectively on the border between the so-called official and independent, and at some point also alternative, culture circulation As a current, student culture was characterized by the fact that, on the one hand, it was institutionally related to academic structures student organizations, universities , while on the other it was a specific enclave of freedom and creativity.
This division well reflects the diversity of forms of student culture in Poland: Dziamski, Kultura studencka: We are talking [ Festivals of Student Culture. In the same volume, this phenomenon was characterized by Grzegorz Dziamski as follows:. It was also influenced by the fact that the creators and participants of this current were representatives of so-called academic youth, though not without exception: Sztuka otwarta.
Teatr, ed. Od laboratorium do warsztatu, w: Kulturowe studia miejskie. Wprowadzenie, Narodowe Centrum Kultury, Warszawa , ss. They were carried out from a scientific perspective, although there were also self-definition and self-identification publications. If one were to search for theoretical concepts that would explain the student culture in Poland under communism as a unique culture current and a movement, one should mention, for example, the sociological concepts of culture.
This approach allows us to show that student culture required the formation of formal and thus in some sense institutionalized social networks, yet it was also an important generational experience, which determined its partly bottom-up character. In both cases, however, it was clearly associated with academic cities and specific places, centres and communities that could be located on the maps of these cities.
The author provides several reasons for the above. Wprowadzenie, Narodowe Centrum Kultury, Warszawa , pp. Pauluk, Ukryte programy uniwersyteckiej edukacji.